COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), a strain of coronavirus.



  • fever  (85-90%)
  • cough (65-70%)
  • fatigue (35-40%)
  • sputum production (30-35%)
  • shortness of breath (15-20%)


The definitive test for SARS-CoV-2 is the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCRtest.

The primary findings on CT in adults have been reported:

ground-glass opacities (GGO): bilateral, subpleural, peripheral
crazy paving appearance (GGOs and inter-/intra-lobular septal thickening)
air space consolidation
bronchovascular thickening in the lesion
traction bronchiectasis


Therapy Recommendations
High-flow nasal oxygen For SpO2 <93%. May prevent the need for intubation and ventilation
Tidal volume 6mL per kg and can be reduced to 4mL/kg
Plateau airway pressure Keep below 30 cmH2O if possible (high respiratory rate (35 per minute) may be required)
Positive end-expiratory pressure Moderate to high levels
Prone positioning For worsening oxygenation
Inhaled nitrous oxide 5-20 ppm
Fluid management Goal is a negative balance of 1/2-1L per day
Antibiotics For secondary bacterial infections
Glucocorticoids Not recommended

Remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon beta are the experimental treatments currently being researched under Solidarity Trial.

Transferring donated blood containing antibodies produced by the immune systems of those who have recovered from COVID-19 to people who need them is being investigated as a non vaccine method of immunisation.


respirator or facemask
medical gloves
eye protection

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