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Top 100 Extremely Important Pharmacology Mnemonics

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  1. Sulfonamides: common characteristics SULFA:
    S-Steven-Johnson syndrome/ Skin rash / Solubility low
    U-Urine precipitation/ Useful for UTI
    L-Large spectrum (gram positives and negatives)
    F-Folic acids synthesis blocker (as well as synthesis of nucleic acids)
    A-Analog of PABA
  2. Diuretics: groups “Leak Over The CAN“:
    L-Loop diuretics
    O-Osmotics
    T-Thiazides
    C-Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    A-Aldosterone inhibitors
    N-Na (sodium) channel blockers
  3. Tuberculosis: treatment If you forget your TB drugs, you’ll
    die and might need a PRIEST“:
    P-Pyrazinamide
    R-Rifampin
    I-Isoniazid (INH)
    E-Ethambutol
    St-Streptomycin
  4. Aminoglycosides: common characteristics AMINO:
    Active Against Aerobic gram negative
    Mechanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes
    Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit
    Nephrotoxic
    Ototoxic
  5. Cocaine: cardiovascular effect COcaine causes blood
    vessels to
    COnstrict (unlike other local anesthetics which cause vasodilation).
  6. Thalidomide: effect on cancer cells “Thalidomide
    makes the blood vessels hide“:
    Use thalidomide to stop cancer cells from growing new blood vessels.
  7. Carbamazepine (CBZ): use CBZ:
    C-Cranial Nerve V (trigeminal) neuralgia
    B-Bipolar disorder
    Z-Zeisures
  8. Warfarin: interactions ACADEMIC QACS:
    A-Amiodarone
    C-Cimetidine
    A-Aspirin
    D-Dapsone
    E-Erythromycin
    M-Metronidazole
    I-Indomethacin
    C-Clofibrates
    Q-Quinidine
    A-Azapropazone
    C-Ciprofloxacin
    S-Statins
  9. Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:
    M-Myosis
    O-Out of it (sedation)
    R-Respiratory depression
    P-Pneumonia (aspiration)
    H-Hypotension
    I-Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
    N-Nausea
    E-Emesis
  10. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA): side effects TCA’S:
    T-Thrombocytopenia
    C-Cardiac (arrhythmia, MI, stroke)
    A-Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc)
    S-Seizures
  11. Corticosteroids: adverse side effects CUSHINGS BAD MD:
    C-Cataracts
    U-Up all night (sleep disturbances)
    S-Suppression of HPA axis
    H-Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
    I-Infections
    N-Necrosis (avascular)
    G-Gain weight
    S-Striae
    B-Bone loss (osteoporosis)
    A-Acne
    D-Diabetes
    M-Myopathy, moon faces
    D-Depression and emotional changes
  12. Microtubules: drugs that act on microtubules. “The 
    M
    icroTubule Growth Voiding Chemicals”:
    T-Thiabendazole
    M-Mebendazole
    T-Taxol
    G-Griseofulvin
    V-Vincristine/ Vinblastine
    C-Colchicine
    BromoCRYPTine is a DOPamine agonist.
  13. Beta blockers: members “The NEPAL Prime
    M-Minister”:
    T-Timolol
    N-Nadolol
    E-Esmolol
    P-Pindolol
    A-Atenolol
    L-Labetalol
    P-Propranolol
    M-Metoprolol
  14. Insulin: mixing regular insulin and NPH “Not Ready,
    Ready Now”:
    Air into NPH
    Air into Regular
    Draw up Regular
    Draw up NPH
  15. Parasympathetic vs. sympathetic neurotransmitters “No
    sympathy for a Pair of Aces”:
    Norepinephren is secreted in by the Sympathetic nervous system
    while Acetylcholine is secreted in the Parasympathetic nervous
    system.
  16. Benzodiazepines: 3 members that undergo extrahepatic metabolism
    Outside The Liver”:
    O-Oxazepam
    T-Temazepam
    L-Lorazepam
    These undergo extrahepatic metabolism and do not form active metabolites.
  17. Guanethidine: mechanism GuaNEthidine prevents NE
    (norepinephrine) release.
  18. Opiods: mu receptor effects “MD CARES“:
    M-Miosis
    D-Dependency
    C-Constipation
    A-Analgesics
    R-Respiratory depression
    E-Euphoria
    S-Sedation
  19. Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD:
    Alpha = Constrict.
    Beta = Dilate.
  20. Beta 1 selective blockers “BEAM ONE up, Scotty”:
    Beta 1 blockers:
    E-Esmolol
    A-Atenolol
    M-Metropolol
  21. Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia “A goes with
    B“:
    Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.
  22. Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF:
    A-Alkylating agents
    B-Bleomycin
    C-Cisplastin
    D-Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
    E-Etoposide
    F-Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen,
    leuprolide)
  23. Busulfan: features ABCDEF:
    A-Alkylating agent
    B-Bone marrow suppression s/e
    C-CML indication
    D-Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
    E-Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
    F-Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e
  24. Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing “I have to
    hide, the CIA is after me”:
    C-Clomipramine
    I-Imipramine
    A-Amitrptyline
  25. Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE:
    A-Amiodarone
    P-Procainamide
    A-Arsenium
    C-Cisapride
    H-Haloperidol
    E-Eritromycin
  26. Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor action zAfirlukast:
    Antagonist of lipoxygenase
    zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor
  27. Propranolol and related ‘-olol’ drugs: usage “olol
    is just two backwards lower case b’s.
    Backward b’s stand for “beta blocker”.
    · Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
    oxprenolol, propranolol.
  28. Beta blockers: B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective A
    through N: B1 selective
    : Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
    O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective:Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.
  29. Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members CHAMP:
    C-Cyclophosphamide
    H-Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
    A-Auranofin and other gold compounds
    M-Methotrexate
    P-Penicillamine
  30. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects,
    contraindications, interactions
     HMGCoA:
    · Side effects:
    H-Hepatotoxicity
    M-Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis]
    · Contraindications:
    G-Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
    · Interactions:
    C-Coumarin/ Cyclosporine
  31. Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM:
    H-Hyperthermia
    A-Autonomic instability (delirium)
    R-Rigidity
    M-Myoclonus
  32. Therapeutic index: formula TILE:
    TI = LD50 / ED50
  33. Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS:
    B-Bretylium
    I-Ibutilide
    A-Amiodarone
    S-Sotalol
  34. MAOIs: indications MAOIS:
    M-Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]
    A-Anxiety
    O-Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]
    I-Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]
    S-Social phobias
  35. K+ increasing agents K-BANK:
    K-K-sparing diuretic
    B-Beta blocker
    A-ACEI
    N-NSAID
    K-Ksupplement
  36. Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin:
    R-RSV
    I-Influenza B
    A-Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)
  37. SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
    A-Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
    B-Barbiturates
    C-Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
    D-Diuretic (thiazide)
  38. Diuretics: thiazides: indications “CHIC to use
    thiazides”:
    C-CHF
    H-Hypertension
    I-Insipidous
    C-Calcium calculi
  39. Parkinsonism: drugs SALAD:
    S-Selegiline
    A-Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)
    L-L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)
    A-Amantadine
    D-Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride,
    pergolide)
  40. Thrombolytic agents USA:
    U-Urokinase
    S-Streptokinase
    A-Alteplase (tPA)
  41. Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
    P-Physical dependence
    E-Euphoria
    A-Analgesia
    R-Respiratory depression
  42. Morphine: effects MORPHINES:
    M-Miosis
    O-Orthostatic hypotension
    R-Respiratory depression
    P-Pain supression
    H-Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations
    I-Increased ICT
    N-Nausea
    E-Euphoria
    S-Sedation
  43. Anticholinergic side effects “Know the ABCD’S of
    anticholinergic side effects”:
    A-Anorexia
    B-Blurry vision
    D-Constipation/ Confusion
    D-Dry Mouth
    D-Sedation/ Stasis of urine
  44. Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV MBA College
    · In order of class I to IV:
    M-Membrane stabilizers (class I)
    B-Beta blockers
    A-Action potential widening agents
    C-Calcium channel blockers
  45. Teratogenic drugs “WTERATOgenic”:
    W-Warfarin
    T-Thalidomide
    E-Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
    R-Retinoid
    A-ACE inhibitor
    T-Third element: lithium
    O-OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)
  46. Epilepsy types, drugs of choice “Military General
    Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing ‘Veni
    Vedi Veci’ After Crushing Enemies”:
    ·Epilepsy types:
    M-Myoclonic
    G-Grand mal
    A-Atonic
    W-West syndrome
    F-Focal
    P-Petit mal (absence)
    · Respective drugsy:
    V-Valproate
    V-Valproate
    VValproate
    A-ACTH
    C-Carbamazepine
    E-Ethosuximide
  47. Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs “Go BAN Me!”:
    Go-Gold
    B-Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
    A-Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
    N-Nitrofurantoin
    M-Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide
  48. Respiratory depression inducing drugs “STOP
    breathing”:
    S-Sedatives and hypnotics
    T-Trimethoprim
    O-Opiates
    P-Polymyxins
  49. Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in
    liver failure)
     LOT:
    L-Lorazepam
    O-Oxazepam
    T-Temazepam
  50. TB: antibiotics used STRIPE:
    St-STreptomycin
    R-Rifampicin
    I-Isoniazid
    P-Pyrizinamide
    E-Ethambutol
  51. Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABATrIn:
    ViGABA Transferase Inhibition
  52. Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism It inhibits PTU:
    P-Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
    T-Tyrosine iodination
    U-Union (coupling)
  53. Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers “Tim Pinches
    His Nasal Problem” (because he has a runny nose…):
    Tim-Timolol
    Pin-Pindolol
    His-Hismolol
    Na-Naldolol
    Pro-Propranolol
  54. Enoxaparin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
    monitoring
     EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
    Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.
  55. Nicotinic effects MTWTF (days of week):
    M-Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
    T-Tachycardia
    W-Weakness
    T-Twitching
    H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
    F-Fasiculation
  56. Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
    S-Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
    L-Lacrimation
    U-Urination
    G-Gastrointestinal upset
    B-Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
    A-Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
    M-Miosis
  57. Hypertension: treatment ABCD:
    ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists
    also)
    B-Beta blockers
    C-Calcium antagonists
    D-Diuretics (sometimes vasoDilators also)
  58. Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
    P-P-450 interactions
    H-Hirsutism
    EEnlarged gums
    N-Nystagmus
    Y-Yellow-browning of skin
    T-Teratogenicity
    O-Osteomalacia
    I-Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
    N-Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache
  59. Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
    D-Digoxin
    I-Isoniazid
    S-Spironolactone
    C-Cimetidine
    O-Oestrogens
    S-Stilboestrol
  60. Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P’s:
    P-Prolongs action potential duration
    P-Photosensitivity
    P-Pigmentation of skin
    P-Peripheral neuropathy
    PPulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
    P-Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidis
  61. Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
    Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart
    that rolls on pinwheels.
    Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively,
    making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.
  62. Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP:
    L-Lipid soluble
    M-Miotic
    N-Natural
    O-Orally absorbed well
    P-Physostigmine
    · Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
    Water soluble
    Used in myesthenia gravis
    Synthetic
    Poor oral absorption
  63. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members “PIT of
    despair”:
    P-Phenelzine
    I-Isocarboxazid
    T-Tranylcypromine
    · A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression.
  64. Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy MCAT:
    M-Metronidazole
    C-Chloramphenicol
    A-Aminoglycoside
    T-Tetracycline
  65. Etoposide: action, indications, side effect “eTOPoside”:
    · Action:
    Inhibits TOPoisomerase II
    · Indications:
    T-Testicular carcinoma
    O-Oat cell carcinoma of lung
    P-Prostate carcinoma
    · Side effect:
    Affects TOP of your head, causing alopecia
  66. Antimuscarinics: members, action “Inhibits Parasympathetic
    And Sweat”:
    I-Ipratropium
    P-Pirenzepine
    A-Atropine
    S-Scopolamine
    · Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in
    sympathetic.
  67. Lithium: side effects LITHIUM:
    L-Leukocytes Increased (leukocytosis)
    T-Tremors
    H-Hypothyroidism
    I-Increased Urine
    M-Moms beware (teratogenic)
  68. Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
    G-Glycerol
    U-Urea
    M-Mannitol
  69. Narcotics: side effects “SCRAM if you see a drug
    dealer”:
    S-Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
    C-Constipation
    R-Respiratory depression
    A-Addiction
    M-Miosis
  70. Benzodiazepines: antidote “Ben is off with the
    flu“:
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.
  71. SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
    S-Serotonin syndrome
    S-Stimulate CNS
    R-Reproductive disfunctions in male
    I-Insomnia
  72. Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
    P-Propranolol
    R-Reserpine
    O-Oral contraceptives
    M-Methyldopa
    S-Steroids
  73. Sex hormone drugs: male “Feminine Males Need
    Testosterone“:
    F-Fluoxymesterone
    M-Methyltestosterone
    N-Nandrolone
    Testosterone
  74. Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH:
    C-Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
    A-Angina
    M-Migranes
    A-Atrial flutter, fibrillation
    S-Supraventricular tachycardia
    H-Hypertension
  75. Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolismI‘m Overly Calm”:
    I-Isoniazid
    O-Oral contraceptive pills
    C-Cimetidine
  76. Warfarin: metabolism SLOW:
    · Has a slow onset of action.
    · A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
    S-Small lipid-soluble molecule
    L-Liver: site of action
    O-Oral route of administration.
    W-Warfarin
  77. Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
    B-Bradycardia & hypotension
    A-Anorexia
    D-Diminished pupilary size
    A-Analgesics
    M-Miosis
    E-Euphoria
    R-Respiratory depression
    I-Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
    C-Constipation
    A-Ameliorate cough reflex
    N-Nausea and vomiting
    S-Sedations
  78. Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a
    TE-TEratogen that causes staining of
    TEeth in the newborn.
  79. Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine eDrophonium
    is for Diagnosis.
    pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.
  80. Narcotic antagonists The Narcotic Antagonists
    are NAloxone and NAltrexone.
    · Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.
  81. Inhalation anesthetics SHINE:
    S-Sevoflurane
    H-Halothane
    I-Isoflurane
    N-Nitrous oxide
    E-Enflurane
  82. Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs “PM PMT” as
    in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
    P-Procarbazine
    M-Metronidazole
    PMT-Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).
  83. Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
    A-Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
    C-Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
    U-Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
    T-Theophylline
    E-Ethanol
    C-Corticosteroids
    H-H2 blockers
    A-Antiparkinsonian drugs
    N-Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
    G-Geriatric psychiatric drugs
    E-ENT drugs
    I-Insomnia drugs
    N-NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
    M-Muscle relaxants
    S-Seizure medicines
  84. Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
    D-Dopamine
    I-Isoproterenol
    N-Norepinephrine
    E-Epinephrine
    D-Dobutamine
  85. Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
    N-Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
    F-Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
    A-Anemia (hemolytic anemia)\
  86. Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
    M-Mental retardation
    E-Electrolyte imbalance
    T-Tolerance
    H-Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
    psYcological upset
    L-Lactation in female
    D-Dry mouth
    O-Oedema
    P-Parkinsonism
    A-Anaemia (haemolytic)
  87. Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
    B-Buffalo hump
    E-Easy bruising
    C-Cataracts
    L-Larger appetite
    O-Obesity
    M-Moonface
    E-Euphoria
    T-Thin arms & legs
    H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
    A-Avascular necrosis of femoral head
    S-Skin thinning
    O-Osteoporosis
    N-Negative nitrogen balance
    E-Emotional liability
  88. Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
    V-Vomiting
    A-Alopecia
    L-Liver toxicity
    P-Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
    R-Retention of fats (weight gain)
    O-Oedema (peripheral oedema)
    A-Appetite increase
    T-Tremor
    E-Enzyme inducer (liver)
  89. Lithium: side effects LITH:
    L-Leukocytosis
    I-Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
    T-Tremor/ Teratogenesis
    H-Hypothyroidism
  90. Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
    A-Anemia
    B-Basophilic stripping
    C-Colicky pain
    D-Diarrhea
    E-Encephalopathy
    F-Foot drop
    G-Gum (lead line)
  91. Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
    A-Asthma
    B-Block (heart block)
    C-COPD
    D-Diabetes mellitus
    E-Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)
  92. Metabolism enzyme inducers “Randy’s Black Car
    Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
    R-Rifampin
    B-Barbiturates
    C-Carbamazepine
    G-Grisoefulvin
    P-Phenytoin
    P-Phenobarb
  93. Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
    these, you will be “LESS DUMB“:
    L-Lacrimation
    E-Excitation of nicotinic synapses
    S-Salivation
    S-Sweating
    D-Diarrhea
    U-Urination
    M-Micturition
    B-Bronchoconstriction
  94. Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body “Stick
    it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
    Stick = Injection
    Sniff = inhalation
    Suck = ingestion
    Soak = absorption
  95. Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis “Very
    A-Angry Hepatocytes”:
    V-Valproic acid
    A-Acetaminophen
    H-Halothane
  96. Bleomycin: action “BleoMycin Blow
    My
     DNA to bits”:
    Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
    MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).
  97. Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location “You have 1 heart
    and 2 lungs“:
    Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
    Beta-2 primarily on lungs.
  98. Beta-blockers: side effects “BBC Loses Viewers
    IRochedale”:
    B-Bradycardia
    B-Bronchoconstriction
    C-Claudication
    L-Lipids
    V-Vivid dreams & nightmares
    I- -ve Inotropic action
    R-Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia
  99. Cisplatin: major side effect, action “Ci-SplatIn“:
    Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
    anti-nausea drug needed.
    Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.
  100. Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
    iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine

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